The history of medicine in Ukraine begins with the history of folk medicine.
The first medical hospitals in Kyiv Rus were founded in the 11th century and were mostly in the form of alms-houses attached to churches.
In the 14th and 15th centuries new hospitals were built and many physicians gave the first aid to the inhabitants of Ukraine and the soldiers of Bogdan Khmelnytsky's troops.
As the number of physicians was inadequate some medical schools which trained specialists were opened. Kyiv Academy was founded in 1632. It played a prominent role in the development of the Ukrainian medicine. Many graduates The History of Medicine in Ukraine of the Academy continued to enrich their knowledge abroad and received their doctors' degrees there. Many former students of this Academy have become well-known scientists. They are the epidemiologist D. S. Samoilovych, the obstetrician N. M. Ambodyk-Maximovych, the pediatrist F. Chotovytsky, the anatomist O. M. Shumlyansky and many others.
At the end of the 18th and during the 19th centuries the medical departments were formed at the Universities of Kharkiv, Kyiv, Lviv and Odesa. The total number of physicians has increased in Ukraine. The medicine of Zemstvo was widely used at that time. During The History of Medicine in Ukraine the Crimean War (1854—1856), upon Pirogov's initiative the first detachment of nurses was trained and sent to Sevastopol help its defenders. It gave the beginning of the organization “Red Cross”.
In 1886 the first bacteriological station was organized in Odesa which was of great importance in the development of microbiology and epidemiology. The famous scientists I. I. Mechnikov and M. F. Gamaliya worked at this station and succeeded much in their investigations. Inspite of favourable conditions for the successful development natural sciences in Russia many outstanding scientists worked in Ukraine. It is known that the brilliant scientist M.I. Pirogov and The History of Medicine in Ukraine his followers, as V.0. Karavayev, 0.F. Shimanovsky, M.V. Sklifosovsky and others made valuable contribution in the Ukrainian medicine. The famous scientists V. P. Obraztsov and M. D. Strazhesko were founders of Kyiv therapeutist' school. They made a huge progress the field of cardiology. Much was done in the treatment of many eye diseases by the prominent scientist, academician V.P. Filatov who founded the Institute of Eye diseases in Odesa. Many other outstanding scientists worked in Ukraine whose names are well known in the world.
3. Post-reading activities
3.1 Suggest the Ukrainian equivalents:
the history of folk medicine; alms-houses attached to The History of Medicine in Ukraine churches; gave the first aid; to enrich their knowledge; gave the beginning; successful development; a huge progress; founded the Institute.
3.2 Suggest the English equivalents:
історія медицини; перші лікарні; мешканці України; багато випускників, отримати ступінь; медичні факультети; загальна кількість лікарів; мати велике значення; зробити значний внесок; лікування очних хвороб.
3.3. Answer the questions:
1. What does the history of medicine in Ukraine begin with?
2. When were the first medical hospitals founded in Kyiv? 3. What form were the first Kyiv hospitals in? 4. When were new hospitals built? 5. Whom did many physicians give the first aid to? 6. When was Kyiv Academy The History of Medicine in Ukraine founded? 7. Where did many physicians receive their doctors' degrees? 8. What former students of the Academy have become the well-known scientists? 9. What Universities were the medical departments founded at? 10. What medicine was widely used at that time? 11. When was the first detachment of nurses trained? 12. When and where was the first bacteriological station organized? 13. Did many outstanding scientists work in Ukraine? 14. What scientists made valuable contribution in the Ukrainian medicine? 15. What scientists were founders of therapeutists' school in Kyiv? 16. Who founded the Institute of Eye diseases in Odesa?
3.4 Say if it true or false:
1. The first medical hospitals in Kyiv Rus were The History of Medicine in Ukraine founded in the 10th century.
2. Many physicians gave the first aid to the inhabitants of Ukraine and the soldiers of Bogdan Khmelnytsky's troops.
3. Kyiv Academy played a prominent role in the development of the Ukrainian medicine.
4. During the Crimean War, upon Strazhesko's initiative the first detachment of nurses was trained and sent to Sevastopol.
5. The first bacteriological station was organized in Kyiv.
6. V.P.Filatov founded the Institute of Eye diseases in Odesa.